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    美國紐約新開設47個職業和技術課程 讓中學生與職業教育無縫對接
    發布時間:2019-04-19 11:42 來源:
    中國教育報
    作者:

    近日,美國紐約市教育局長理查德·卡蘭薩(Richard A. Carranza)宣稱,紐約市在2018—2019學年新開設了47個職業和技術教育課程項目。到2018年底,紐約市中學的職業和技術教育課程項目總量達301個,這些項目廣泛地開設于全市的135所中學,惠及64000余名中學生。

    正在紐約市開展的職業和技術教育課程項目由一系列設計嚴謹的學術課程和職業課程組成。這些課程對應著不同的職業領域,能夠為中學生升入兩年或四年的大學或直接走向工作崗位提供無縫對接。

    學生通過在中學階段學習這類課程,能夠更加清晰地了解自身的職業路徑和發展方向,也能夠打破大學入學需求課程和職業培訓課程之間的壁壘,減少學生因學業規劃問題而產生的迷茫與焦慮。

    紐約市市長比爾·布拉西奧(Bill de Blasio)也表示,看到越來越多的中學將“基于社會實踐的職業和技術課程”直接搬進了課堂。布拉西奧還指出,紐約市的職業和技術課程項目能夠覆蓋到下屬5個區的所有中學生,能夠為所有學生提供平等和卓越的教育,能夠為他們升入大學、掌握職業技能提供重要支撐。

    這47個新開設的職業和技術課程是根據紐約市經濟發展中最急需的人才類別進行匹配設置的,主要集中于服務與旅游業、建筑業、藝術、影音技術、通訊、信息技術、法律、公共安全、科技研究、工程、健康科學、運輸、配送、物流和制造業生產等領域,所對應的具體崗位達80余種。學生在完成這些課程項目后可以選擇進入高等教育機構學習,也可以直接走向人才市場擇業;學生既可以選擇技術培訓類課程或去當學徒,也可以走進與自身興趣相符合的專業技術學校學習,還可以同時選擇上述的所有安排。

    紐約市曼哈頓區區長蓋爾·布魯爾(Gale A. Brewer)表示,這些課程為學生走向成功提供了多元路徑。這些設計縝密的課程既可以保證部分學生正常地升入大學,也能夠通過嚴格的職業訓練為學生信心滿滿地走向人才市場提供保障。

    美國國會眾議員阿德里亞諾·埃斯帕萊特(Adriano Espaillat)表示,科學和技術教育在幫助學生更好地應對急劇變化的人才需求趨勢上發揮著重要作用,紐約市正在開展的職業和技術教育項目能夠為學生提供公平的教育機會,對于紐約市64000余名中學生的學術能力和職業發展都將十分有益。

    美國國會參議員賈馬爾·貝利(Jamaal Bailey)認為,在這個變動不居的時代,學生只有擁有多項技能才能更好地參與競爭,通過為學生提供一種適合他們的教育來發展他們的技能是至關重要的,應該摒棄那種過時的、拿一種課程教授所有學生的教育理念。

    據悉,紐約市逐年增加職業和技術課程項目,既是近年來一以貫之的一項教育改革項目,也是紐約市大力推進“公平與卓越教育”政策中的一個重要組成部分,其核心是為學生的學術成就和職業發展提供多元選擇。

    在美國紐約州,職業和技術課程項目總量達到了1100多個,全州有超過100萬名學生通過修讀這門課程而受益。紐約州將職業和技術課程項目分為農業教育,商業和市場營銷教育,家庭和消費科學教育,健康職業教育,科技教育,貿易、技術和工業教育等領域。

    在這類課程的監督與管理方面,紐約州通過成立專門的委員會來負責監督和有序推進,同時也如實地記錄所有學生的學習與技能獲得情況,并將這些連載的記錄作為以后學生向雇主表明職業能力的重要憑證。

    (作者單位:北京教育科學研究院教育發展研究中心)

    《中國教育報》2019年04月19日第5版 版名:環球周刊

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