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    填補建筑產業人才缺口助力產業升級
    發布時間:2019-06-04 15:33 來源:
    中國教育報
    作者:

        建筑業是我國國民經濟的重要支柱產業。2018年我國國內生產總值突破90萬億元,其中建筑業總產值23.5萬億元,占比約26%,同比增長9.9%。建筑業企業8萬多家,從業人員超過5500萬。整個建筑業總體上是一個勞動密集型的傳統產業,產業現代化水平不高,存在建設周期較長、資源能源消耗較高及生產效率、科技含量偏低等問題。我國建筑產業升級和高質量發展的根本途徑是信息化和工業化深度融合,建筑信息模型(Building Information Modeling, BIM)技術正是建筑產業信息化的關鍵性基礎技術。

        BIM技術被廣泛認為21世紀建筑產業創新發展的關鍵技術,備受世界各國重視,被視為現代和未來行業從業者需要學習和掌握的基本技術技能,但當前我國具備BIM技術應用能力的人才非常缺乏。大力培養適應行業未來發展需求的建筑信息模型(BIM)技能人才是實現我國建筑產業信息化和工業化深度融合的基礎和關鍵。

        國務院《國家職業教育改革實施方案》和教育部、國家發改委、財政部和市場監管總局聯合下發《關于在院校實施“學歷證書+若干職業技能等級證書”制度試點方案》通知,要求從2019年開始,在職業院校、應用型本科高校啟動“學歷證書+若干職業技能等級證書”制度試點工作(以下稱1+X證書制度試點)。這是適應我國未來產業需求和人才培養創新模式的重大變革。BIM職業技能等級證書是首批試點改革項目,它是以建筑產業未來發展和需求為導向設立的。該證書面向中高職及本科院校土建類相關專業,實現人才培養和職業能力水平雙重考評認證,具有社會性、開放性和復合性。該制度的實施和推廣將會在很大程度上緩解目前工程建設行業BIM專業技術人才緊缺狀況,更重要的是,從長遠來看,將對我國建筑產業的升級和高質量發展有著十分重要的意義。

        BIM職業技能等級證書制度的設立原則需綜合考慮以下三個方面:一是面向建筑產業未來發展的變革需求;二是促進職業技能標準和教學標準的深化融合;三是參照國際標準,以學生能力產出為導向。

        BIM職業技能等級證書對應土木建筑類職業院校和本科院校的城市規劃、建筑設計和土建類專業及相關專業,劃分為初、中、高三個技能等級。BIM初級證書獲得者需要具備該職業技能的專業基礎知識與建模技能,具備讀圖和識圖能力,熟練掌握主流BIM軟件的操作技能,能夠獨立完成BIM建模。BIM中級證書獲得者需要具備該職業技能的專業應用知識與技能,掌握多種BIM軟件的操作技能,能夠完成多種BIM軟件之間的數據傳遞和集成,具備BIM軟件和硬件的復合應用能力。BIM高級證書的獲得者需要具備該職業技能的綜合應用知識與技能,能夠組織和管理BIM團隊,完成從模型創建、項目應用與協調到成果總結與交付的全過程BIM應用,具備較強的專業能力和溝通能力,能夠實現從技術應用到協同管理的價值提升。

        職業院校與本科院校BIM課程體系設置的總體目標是,根據專業培養目標設置建筑信息模型BIM理論與技能的課程體系,并將其融入到專業技能的人才培養方案中,使得院校畢業生取得BIM證書后,具備在企業及工程實踐中應用、管理以及發展BIM的能力。

        職業院校、應用型本科高校中開設BIM課程應遵循理論與實踐并重、職業培訓與專業教育融合、與所學專業課程互相補充、融合發展等原則,課程的組織形式主要有知識學習、上機實習、項目實踐、行業專家講座和研討會等,也可多種形式相結合。

        BIM課程有兩種開設方式:一是開設獨立的BIM課程,二是在既有課程中植入BIM模塊。不同專業可采用不同的BIM課程開設方式,例如:建筑規劃設計類專業和工程管理類專業可采用開設獨立的BIM綜合應用課程,系統地講解相關的BIM綜合應用知識和技能;所有土木類專業均應開設BIM基礎應用課程,可采用在既有課程體系中將BIM知識模塊嵌入課堂教學中;BIM技能模塊可納入課程大作業、課程設計、畢業論文或畢業設計等。

        BIM職業技能等級證書將以建筑行業未來需求、能力產出為導向,參照學習國際工業發達國家成功的經驗和標準,充分融合職業技能標準和學校教學標準規范。目前,BIM證書實施的配套制度已基本建設完成,該證書制度的設置將有效填補當前建筑產業的BIM技術人才缺口,全面提升工程建設領域BIM應用能力,助力未來建筑產業的轉型升級與創新發展,有著十分重要的意義和發展前景。

        (作者系同濟大學建筑產業創新發展研究院院長、教授)

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