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    深刻把握“雙高計劃”建設的關鍵
    發布時間:2019-06-04 15:29 來源:
    中國教育報
    作者:

        今年以來,《國家職業教育改革實施方案》(“職教20條”)落地,中國特色高水平高職學校和專業建設計劃(“雙高計劃”)迅即啟動,充分體現了國家推動職業教育高水平發展的堅強決心和強大行動力。“雙高計劃”站位高、目標遠、舉措新、平臺大,旨在打造職業教育的“中國標桿”“中國方案”。項目院校落實好改革、發展和建設任務,需要把握好標準、制度、隊伍和平臺四個關鍵。

        一是標準。“雙高計劃”將標準的開發與應用作為重要的建設任務,提出“推出一批具有國際影響的高質量專業標準、課程標準、教學資源”。

        首先,“雙高計劃”學校要樹立標準化辦學的強烈意識,爭做標準落實的“示范者”。將人才培養和教育教學關鍵環節的標準化建設作為高質量發展的“牛鼻子”和“突破口”,落地開發從職業、專業、課程到校企合作、教學過程、學業評價等的校本標準,建立健全標準體系。把握高水平學校建設對人才培養質量的高要求,探索建立基于“大國工匠”型優秀技術技能人才的培養標準,以高標準引領人才培養改革。

        其次,要積極參與國家標準和行業標準開發,爭做標準開發的“首創者”。積極提升校本標準、優勢領域的經驗與范式,為國家標準制定提供及時有效的科學數據和標準參考;率先牽頭研制新技術、新專業、新課程領域的相關標準,引領和促進同行發展;實質性參與行業組織活動乃至牽頭組建新興領域的行業組織,牽頭或參與制定行業標準,搶占職業教育在行業標準制定中的話語權。

        再其次,要率先開展標準的國際化,爭做中國標準輸出的“先行者”。將本土標準的國際化及輸出作為“雙高計劃”建設的重要指標,率先將傳統優勢產業和新興技術領域的專業教學、優質課程、職業技能評價等標準實現國際通用,并通過國際開放辦學充分運用到留學生培養、境外辦學和國際培訓中,面向世界職業教育提供“中國標準”。

        二是制度。高水平不僅要有大量的顯性成果來體現,也需要一系列高水平的制度來支撐。“雙高計劃”充分凸顯了制度建設在職教發展和學校改革中的重要性。

        1+X證書制度是我國職業教育的突破性、創新性制度設計。“雙高計劃”學校要率先開展1+X證書的落地制度建設,在復合型、創新型、發展型人才培養目標的適配優化,模塊化、層次性、多接口的專業人才培養方案動態調整,基于育訓結合、主輔修、職業綜合能力訓練的學業修習、指導、認定及轉換等方面建立健全機制,為學生獲取職業技能等級證書提供制度通道。

        專業集群發展是職業院校適應產業集群發展、鏈式發展的一種應然性選擇,“雙高計劃”學校要健全對接產業、動態調整、自我完善的發展機制。著重將專業之間的技術關聯、行業關聯和職業關聯作為整合專業資源、構建專業群的基本依據,探索以群建院、夯實基層教學組織、設立跨專業教學組織的專業群管理制度;通過調整專業設置、聚焦產業領域、合理錯位崗位面向、打造專業基礎平臺、加強相互支撐等方式,建立專業群的融合發展機制,打造“地方離不開”的專業群。

        “雙高計劃”明確提出,提升學校治理水平,推進治理能力現代化。實現高水平的學校治理,一方面要從規范辦學制度入手,針對參與辦學的政校行企各主體,從咨詢、協商、決策到執行、監督的各個層面建立健全治理組織和管理制度,提高制度的系統性、開放性和協同性,為健全現代職業學校治理體系夯實制度基礎。另一方面,要將制度建設的重點面向制度創新,在國家經濟社會制度和職業教育制度變革的大背景下,針對國家政策制度的落地率先回應,針對約束發展的瓶頸、桎梏大膽改革,以制度創新引領高水平建設和高質量發展。

        三是隊伍。教師隊伍是教育的第一資源,教師隊伍建設是教育的基礎工作。“雙高計劃”把教師隊伍建設作為重要內容,以“四有”標準打造數量充足、專兼結合、結構合理的高水平雙師隊伍。

        要打造專業化、結構化的高水平教師教學創新團隊。產業升級發展與新技術推動要求教師在技術技能的傳承傳授上要更加專業化,技術技能的交叉復合以及職教課程的項目化、模塊化教學趨勢又對教師的分工協作和結構化構成提出了新要求。因此,要緊緊圍繞職業教育教學的類型與形態特征,將行業企業工作經歷、周期性的企業輪訓、專兼結合的團隊構成等,作為打造高水平教師團隊的必然要求。

        還要建設專家型、領軍式的高層次專業帶頭人隊伍,尤其是高水平專業群要引育并舉打造行業有權威的專業帶頭人,發揮其在整體提升專業教學團隊職教能力、引領提升應用研發與技術服務水平以及融入行業核心圈整合利用校企資源中的“領頭雁”作用,夯實高水平專業群建設的基礎。

        更要建設一批精技善教、行業頂尖的高技藝“工匠之師”,這是培養“大國工匠”型優秀人才的內在要求。要廣泛建立技能大師工作室,為工匠型教師成長發展搭建平臺;在柔性聘任、兼職兼薪等用人機制上進行改革和突破,積極發揮企業大師名匠在學校人才培養中的重要作用。

        四是平臺。職業教育是開放型教育,職業教育發展離不開內外部資源的共同施力、協同作用。“雙高計劃”提出打造技術技能創新服務平臺,深化產教融合,提升校企協同的人才培養和技術創新水平。

        提升高端性。合作對象上體現高端性,重點選擇區域、行業的領先企業、標桿企業以及產教融合型企業,更好地發揮優質資源集聚優勢。目標定位上體現高端性,對接地方產業、企業的國際化戰略,與“走出去”企業共同組建校企協作組織,推動產教融合從本土走向國際合作的領域。資源建設上體現高端性,共同開發行業企業標準和教學標準、課程標準,通過企業項目的教學化改造建設優質課程資源,建設專業化的產教融合高端實訓基地等。

        拓展新路徑。適應不同產業的發展形態、需求和不同專業領域的人才培養特點,探索建立職教集團、產業聯盟、產業學院等不同形態,共享基地、協同創新、校地合作、資本混合等不同類型的產教融合平臺組織,不斷創新合作體制機制,創設產教融合各項政策落地、各類個性化模式探索的實施載體,營造產教融合發展的良好環境。

        打造共同體。以校企協同的人才培養為核心,建設集人才培養、科技攻關、團隊建設、技術服務、智庫咨詢等功能于一體的產教融合平臺,并融入區域產業發展。推動平臺從虛擬走向實體化,職業院校以優質辦學資源及智力資源參與實體化運作,把合作平臺提升到校企命運共同體的新層次,形成產教融合發展、同頻共振的良性循環生態圈。

        (作者系浙江省現代職業教育研究中心副主任、金華職業技術學院副院長)

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