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    職業教育如何提質?教育部透露五大新動向
    發布時間:2019-05-16 15:31 來源:
    瞭望新媒體
    作者:

      瞭望記者從5月10日召開的教育部新聞發布會上獲悉,繼“職教20條”搭建職業教育體制機制的“四梁八柱”之后,職業教育現已進入全面施工、內部裝修階段。有五大新動向對提升職業教育質量意義深遠。

      第一,部門層面將有更多有含金量的職業教育配套政策出臺。教育部將會同成員單位各部門出臺更多有含金量的配套政策,努力在提高技術技能人才地位待遇、激發企業和社會力量參與職業教育的內生動力、強化職業教育條件保障等方面取得實效。

      王繼平在答《瞭望》新聞周刊記者提問時說,所謂的“含金量”政策體現在兩方面,一是在相關的財政、金融、土地、信用、稅收等方面為發展職業教育爭取支持。另一方面是推進職業教育改革有突破性的進展。比如高職擴招100萬人實施之后,中央已經明確提出,要鼓勵應屆高中生包括中職畢業生報考高等職業學校,其實是取消了中職升高職的比例限制,將直接增強中等職業學校的吸引力,使中等職業學校學生呈現"就業有優勢、創業有本領、升學有通道、終身發展有基礎"的比較優勢。

      第二,地方政府層面統籌抓職業教育的責任將得到強化。王繼平介紹,教育部將推動分省簽訂部省落實“職教20條”備忘錄,完善頂層設計與地方實踐協同推進的工作機制。還將根據國辦要求,對職業教育領域真抓實干明顯的省份進行重點獎勵。獎勵內容是,將這些省(區、市),優先納入國家職業教育改革試驗區建設,在中國特色高水平高職學校和專業建設、職業教育實訓基地建設、現代職業教育質量提升計劃等重大項目中予以傾斜支持。目前首批6個省份已得到重點獎勵。

      第三,學校層面的升格沖動將按下停止鍵,回歸職業教育本分。王繼平解釋,繼十年前實施的"示范高職"計劃后,教育部將聯合財政部實施“雙高計劃”,目的是趟出一條中國特色職業教育發展之路,打造中國職業教育走向世界舞臺的“清華、北大”。這樣做的用意是解決“后示范時代職業教育向何處去”的問題。因為十年前的“示范高職”計劃結束后,被認定的100所“示范高中”和100所“骨干高職”學校中,存在較強的向普通本科升格的沖動,這種沖動如不及時引導,很可能使職業教育喪失本來的優勢,導致職業教育與普通教育“同質化”。“雙高計劃”目標瞄向中國特色、世界水平,包括高水平高職學校和高水平高職專業兩部分內容,力求把職業教育變成地方離不開、行業都認同、國際可交流的教育。目前,該計劃已進入申報階段,馬上進入評審階段,評審通過的高職院校和高職專業,將獲得相關資源支持,以每五年為一周期,中間實行有進有出,動態調整。

      第四,職業院校和行業企業將成“命運共同體”。由教育部和國家發改委共同組織實施的產教融合型企業建設試點是激發行業企業參與職業教育的重要舉措,被列入相關清單的企業,將在金融、財政、土地、信用以及稅收方面享受國家優惠政策。目前,關于“產教融合型試點企業興辦職業教育的投資,要落實按投資額30%來抵免該企業當年應交教育費附加和地方教育附加”已進入具體落實階段。來自全國24家企業已進入重點建設培育的產教融合型企業名單。王繼平表示,未來將通過一系列激勵機制,為社會力量舉辦職業教育探索路徑,為社會力量舉辦職業教育探索路徑,隨著行業企業承擔職業教育責任的文化環境日益改善,職業院校和企業將形成互享互鑒的命運共同體。

      第五,職業教育的終身教育特點將日益凸顯。教育部職業技術教育中心研究所所長王揚南介紹,1+X證書制度試點是職業教育邁向終身教育的關鍵突破。因為試點學生獲得的職業技能等級證書將進入1+X證書信息管理服務平臺,與職業教育國家學分銀行個人學習賬戶系統相對接,計入學分。用人單位可據此識別學生的學業情況,為就業錄用提供參考。

      記者從新聞發布會上獲悉,自今年3月啟動1+X證書制度試點以來,有5家培訓評價組織和6個職業技能等級證書通過官方確認。截至5月6日,每個證書約有200-600所院校參與試點,涉及學生總規模累計約20多萬人。今年還會在工業機器人應用、物聯網技術、焊接技術與自動化等六個領域確定相關的培訓評價組織及其開發的職業技能等級證書。參與試點的學生將開始計入學分。今年開始試點的學生就會有相應的學分記錄。(記者 劉苗苗)

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